The Hollow of the Three Hills

Setting: 1800 during autumn. Area is secluded and enclosed by three hills. The surrounding forest is decaying.

Point of view: 3rd person

Themes: Regret, Guilt, Shame, Remorse, Sorrow, Grief, Dolefulness, Death, Dishonored, Betrayal

Mood: tension, grief, suspense

Characters:

  • Young woman, main character. She is described as a lady and graceful, but pale and troubled. There is foreshadowing in her description by saying that she is pale meaning that she is already dead. She is desperate and her guilt is killing her, she abandoned her son betraying her family and now he is dead. She made a treaty with the witch and gave her life to listen how her family was. “it is a place mortals cannot see” , if she is there it means she is dead and will not survive to tell this experience. She died still feeling guilty by her son`s death, “(…) left her child to die”.
  • The witch insultingly described as “the other” is and old woman. Wrinkled, shrunken and decrepit. She speaks old English and represents death, “withered crone”. “here has been a sweet hour’s sport!”, she does these treaties all the time, she takes lives all the time.
  • Her parents also appear, talking about her daughter feeling betrayed and embarrassed because of what she had done, and also mourning the loss of their grandchild.
  • Her husband, who is also angry at his wife accusing her of being unfaithful and mourning the loss of his child.

Summary:

A young woman seeks the help of a withered hag to learn what has happened to her parents, husband and child whom she abandoned to commit sin. She finds that her parents are-broken hearted, her husband distraught and her child dead. She herself dies on the spot.

Home is So Sad

Comment closely on how the writers of ‘Rooms’ and ‘Home is So Sad’ deal with the double meaning of ‘rooms’ in the poems.

 

The poems ‘Rooms’ and ‘Home is So Sad’ deal with two different meanings of ‘rooms’ in the poem. On the one hand, the word rooms in the poem by Charlotte Mew symbolizes security, comfort, privacy and having your own space where you can be just yourself with your thoughts. On the other hand, rooms in “Home is So Sad” are described at the beginning as empty, abandoned, desolated and unhappy.

 

To begin with, the poem “Rooms” written by Charlotte Mew tackles with a woman who uses places to describe romantic relationships. She describes each of the relationship as a room and explains how they affected on her life. During the poem, she enters different rooms. The poem deals with sadness mixed with happiness, since she remembers her worthy relationships but at the same time they are not there anymore. We can see this when the author uses the word “I remember” showing the readers how nostalgic the tone is.

Mew tells us about many relationships. “The room in Paris, the room at Geneva”. In spite of the fact that they were good memories, Charlotte makes clear that everything ended. “Rooms where for good or for ill—things died.”.

Contrarily, in the last stanza, Charlotte Mew confesses the readers the relationship that she still misses. With bitterness, she remembers this relationship more than any other she had. “But there is the room where we (two) lie dead”.

Charlotte Mew, by writing about her most precious relationships of her life, wanted to symbolise how we spent most of our lives in rooms. Mew pointed out and described what was important and special to her, but she made clear that most, or some, of the experiences that we really enjoy happen in our rooms. Each one of us, as different from one another as we are, has a room with its own experience and background. Therefore, rooms are so powerful that can show our identity.

 

On the other hand Philip Larkin, instead of describing important relationships of his life, writes about a home that was abandoned by their previous owners. With disappointment, he compares the previous house with this new modern building.

To start with, the title of the poem transmits the readers the main theme and message. By using alliteration, ‘So Sad’, readers can understand the importance that message being conveyed. The word sadness quickly transmits to the readers a feeling of loss, fear and nostalgia.

During the poem, while the writer describes how the house is ‘shaped to comfort of the last to go’ the voice realises how home will always be home, and there is no place like it.  ‘You can see how it was’. The voice comes to the conclusion that the rooms might be different, but they give them the same sensation that they did before.

Just as Charlotte Mew, Philip Larkin leaves us a message. Every house is individual and special to the owner, he misses his old house as much as Mew misses the memories of the relationships she enjoyed in those rooms. Anyhow, Larkin teach us one other thing too. No matter how changed the house is, the previous owner will always feel comfortable there, since it is home.

 

Where we love is home, home that our feet may leave, but not our hearts. Both of the writer conveyed the same message about what home means. However, Mew uses experiences to describe the security of a room and how much time you spend on it while Larkin describes desolated rooms and uses a voice to conclude that despite the changes home is home.

 

Rooms by Charlotte Mew

Charlotte Mew biography:

  • Born: November 15, 1869
  • Death: March 24,1928
  • Mew’s life was largely unhappy.
  • Two of her brothers died in infancy and another in boyhood, and a brother and sister were committed to mental hospitals at a young age.
  • Mew and her sister Anne vowed to remain childless so as not to transmit what they believed to be a family disorder.
  • Sexually repressed
  • She was poor
  • She commited suicide

 

Room symbolism:

Room can be a symbol of captivity and brutality. On the other hand, it could symbolize security.  

 

Activity 1:

Questions:

  1. The life of turn-of-the-twentieth-century British writer Charlotte Mew was full of tragedy from beginning to end. Mew was born in London in 1869 into a family of seven children; she was the eldest daughter. While she was still a child, three of her brothers died. Later, another brother and then a sister were committed to mental hospitals in their twenties where they would spend the rest of their lives. That left only Charlotte and her sister Anne, both of whom, because of the history of mental illness in their family, decided never to marry so they wouldn’t pass the traits on to their children. The traumatic issues Mew grappled with during her childhood—death, mental illness, loneliness, and disillusionment—became themes in her poetry and stories.
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  3. We begin with the poetic voice immersing us in a nostalgic look back at the relationships that have played a part in her life. These are positioned as things that have slowed her heart, which could be taken as a negative, but that I would suggest represent love progressing from something fiercely passionate to a more sedate and comforting emotion.

    Relationships are imagined as rooms, I’ll explore why in the next section. In each room there seem to positive memories, but her nostalgia is disturbed from the realities of the problems within the relationships that brought them to an end.

    The final four line reflect on the final relationship or room that is much more substantial than those of memory. The poem becomes personal as ‘we’ are addressed telling us that this is meant for this lover. Although she talks about them being ‘dead’, I think this is meant to represent the end of the emotional turmoil of seeking love and rather represents the finality of the relationship – no chance of adding another room to her house. Within this relationship we have flashes of the passion that was a precursor to a deeper love, but it is the stability and security of the relationship that is really focused upon.

    1. “Rooms where for good or for ill, things died”
    2. “Through every morning we seem to wake and might just as well seem to sleep again”
  4. The opening of the poem is deeply nostalgic, with brief flashes of forgotten joy mingled with remembered bitterness. However, these diametrically opposed memories are quickly washed over with reason that stems from the joy of having a secure, stable and fully realised loved. The last four lines are a happy recall from nostalgia to the joy of today.
  5. The theme could denote how we spend our lives essentially in rooms, and each room has its own experience and background which ultimately shapes our identity and future. Alternatively, and in addition, the rooms we spend our time in could eventually shape our personalities and identities and therefore the word rooms is used as the setting or context in which we spend the majority of our lives.  Moreover, the tone of the poem is nostalgia (“I remember”) and sorrowfulness mixed with joy, its something the author misses and remembers. Something thats no longer there, something that had died.

 

Activity 2:

 

War poetry

Read the Poem

  1. Look for information about Wilfred Owen
  2. Characteristics of war poetry
  3. Explain each stanza with your own words
  4. Which images predominate? Quote and explain
  5. What does the title mean
  • Wilfred owen
  • Born: 18 March of 1893
  • Death: 4th November 1918
      • Fought on war world 1
      • He wrote about the horror of trenches of gas warfare
      • It’s regarded as the greatest poet of ww1
      • Influenciated by Keats and Shelley
      • Sassoon was his mentor
      • He used satire in his poems
  • Characteristics of war poetry
      • Rhetoric of honor
      • Injury

Stanzas

  • Stanza 1: Stanza one talks about how the soldiers lived in the trenches. They were dehumanized because they were so exhausted that they couldn’t even see the gas bomb that had fallen besides them. This is a sign that they were so tired that their scenes were prejudiced. Also their conditions were precarious.
  • Stanza 2: This stanza gives us an inside of how difficult was to survive in the war. It shows the reaction of the soldiers when a bomb was thrown at them.
  • Stanza 3: This stanza shows Owens feelings towards war, and how he was very traumatized because of the events. This is Owen talking in the “present” after the war.
  • Stanza 4: This stanza show a criticism to war, the church and the government, that made kids go to war compulsory.
  • Imageries
      • The imageries that predominate are the visual imageries. This show what was war and the trenches like. “Of gas-shells dropping softly behind.”
  • Title:
  • Traduction: “It is sweet and right.”
  • “It sweet and right to die for your country”

Task 1: Poem analysis

Stanza 1

  1. What is the main emotion expressed in the first stanza (verse)?

The main emotion that the first stanza portrays is suffering. It portrays how the soldiers were living in pain and precarious situations.

  1. Write an example of a simile used in the first stanza:

“Like old beggars under sacks”

Why were the shells ‘disappointed’?

The shells were disappointed because of the situation that was happening. They were at war and the shells were disappointed of this.

Stanza 2

  1. How does the emotion change at the beginning of the second stanza?

In the first stanza everything is tranquil. The soldiers are very tired and complaining about their situation. But when the second stanza starts an atmosphere of terror and survival starts because the opponents are throwing gas to the soldiers so they have to escape it not to die.

  1. What were the soldiers ‘fumbling’ for and why?

They were fumbling because the gas was thrown to them unexpectedly so they started to run to escape it. Because they were surprised by it they ran clumsily.

  1. Owen uses a metaphor to describe what the gas looked like. Write it here:

“Under green sea”

Stanza 3

  1. Why do you think the third stanza is only two lines long? Think about the dramatic effect and the emotion:

This stanza is very short to emphasis how the soldier thinks about his experience in the war. He writes about how he sees one of his fellow soldiers dying because of the gas.

Stanza 4

  1. What is the main emotion expressed in the fourth stanza?

The main emotion expressed in the fourth stanza is criticism. In this stanza the poet invites us to have a more critical view of war and its propaganda.

    1. Name three parts of the body that are affected by this sort of gas:
      • The eyes: This gas affects the eyes by irritating them and sometimes this can end in blindness. “ white eyes writhing in his face”.
  • The lungs: When the gas enters the lungs they can create cancer, because of its chemical structure. When you breathe this gas you feel breathless. “froth-corrupted lungs,/Obscene as cancer,”
  • The tongue: When the gas was toxic for the mouth too. “incurable sores on innocent tongues”
  1. Explain the final lines.

Extension Question

  1. Write your opinion of this poem. Think about what the emotion expressed, use of powerful words, use of similes and metaphors, layout, and what the poet is trying to say. Try to use full sentences and give reasons to support your ideas.
    Share these answers in your blog)

Our opinion of the poem is that is very real. The poet expresses his trauma and his near death experience with a lot of imageries. He makes us see how war is and the real conditions that the battlefield is. With his imageries he portrays a serie of emotions like desperation, exhaustion and  fear that is very striking for someone that hasn’t gone to war. Owen gives us ,also, the aftermath of war, and how it affects the human mind. After war you most probably will end up with a psychological trauma that will last forever which is very striking.

E-portfolio

Task 2

-Work on the following poems (they can be found in Songs of Ourselves or you can listen to them)

Soldier, Rest!

The Death Bed

Task 2:

Soldier, rest!

Opinion: In our opinion, the aim of the poem ‘Soldier, Rest!’ written by Sir Walter Scott is to protest the whole meaning of war. Scott criticizes the causes and consequences of it. He despises the ‘days of danger’ and the battle fields. Scott concludes that it is even better to die than to live after war since living as a veteran is that bad. Moreover, he also emphasise that it is better to die in war than to fight. According to Scott, war is the worst fate.

Alliteration: “sleep to sleep” “days of danger” “fairy strains of music falls”

Oxymoron: ‘nights of waking’

Metaphors: ‘sleep’ This is a powerful metaphor since it represents the whole message of the poem, which is death. Death is important because the author wants to transmit to the readers that death is better than life after war.

Themes: afterlife, meaning of life, death

Tone: reflective, dreaming, calming

Anaphora:

 Sleep! the deer is in his den

Sleep! thy hounds are by thee lying:

Sleep! nor dream in yonder glen

The Death Bed

Opinion: Sassoon described the sad story of a soldier that was wounded in war. The soldier is so hurt that he could not see the difference between life and death, dreams and reality, consciousness and unconsciousness. This makes the readers feel sorry for him and to understand how badly war hurts soldiers. Even if they survive, a sad death or a painful trauma will follow. At the end, the soldiers ‘faced in his drawing eyes’.

Themes: battle of life and death, war, death

Tone: agony, confusion and darkness

Anaphora:

Water – calm, sliding green above the weir

Water- a sky – lit alley for his boat

Task 3

  1. Check out the following page: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/articles/70139/the-poetry-of-world-war-i
  2. Choose 2 poems and prepare an analysis.
  3. Illustrate them with pictures and explain which different parts of the poem they illustrate.
  4. Write an essay. Compare and contrast 2 of the poems you have worked on. Comment closely on the themes, tones and how the writers convey their message.
  5. Post the analysis in your blog.

I strongly suggest these authors: Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon and T. Hardy (but you can choose whoever you want)

Task 3:

2.

a) The kiss by Siegfried Sassoon

b) Channel firing by Thomas Hardy

4.

Compare and contrast 2 of the poems you have worked on. Comment closely on the themes, tones and how the writers convey their message.

Even if the two poems, ‘Soldier, Rest!’ written by Sir Walter Scott and “The Death Bed” written by Sassoon both deal with war, they both face the fatality in a different way. On the one hand, ‘Soldier, Rest!’ tackles afterlife in a calming tone while “The Death Bed” portrays death with agony.

To begin with, ‘Soldier, Rest!’ main aim is to complain about war. During the whole poem, Scott criticizes everything that has to do with war, the causes, consequences, the meaning itself. He even describes, by means of the voice, how scary war is. “Days of danger, nights of waking”  Through this oxymoron, readers can understand how horrifying war actually is. However, Scott also leaves a conclusion behind his poem. Firstly, it is better to die than live after a war. Readers can understand this when the main voice talks about the nightmares war veterans can suffer. Lastly, he leaves a message according to the physical part of the war. Scott claims that it is better to die there than to fight and kill innocent soldiers.

Because of this, the poem, in a reflective tone, talks about the meaning of life and death.

On the other hand, “The Death Bed”  is a poem about a soldier which was wounded in war. It portrays his experience about being badly hurt and coming in and out of consciousness. The soldier suffers a battle between life and death and cannot see the difference between life and death, dreams and reality, consciousness and unconsciousness. Sassoon’s aim was to prove that soldiers are hurt as much as in war eve if they do not die in the battle field. He tackles death, but not in a reflective way, but in a confusive one. He makes the readers feel disorientated about whether the main voice is dead or alive. Moreover, the tone of this poem is also full of darkness and agony, as the soldier ends up dying. The soldier ‘Faced in his drawing eyes’.

In conclusion, the poem ‘Soldier, Rest!’ manifests war in a dreamy way showing us how fearsome war can be while “The Death Bed” talks about war by showing how badly life can be for war veterans. Sassoon portrays this in a gloomy and tragic way.

 

The Lady in the Looking Glass: A Reflection

  1. Notice how the mirror in the first paragraph is set up as the frame for a kind of a portrait.
  2. The unnamed narrator attempts to construct a portrait of the Isabella Tyson that consists of her outer self and her inner self. The portrait is reflected in the objects inside and outside the house as they reflect in the mirror. Describe the images reflected in the mirror.
  3. What kind of contrast is there between the objects inside the house and outside the house, as they are reflected in the mirror?
  4. Describe how the narrator attempts to compose the portrait through the mood inside the room, through her own imagination, and through the presentation of Isabella in the mirror
  5. What are the known facts about Isabella’s outer self?
  6. What material objects inside and outside the house does the narrator use to imagine Isabella’s life?
  7. What are Isabella’s letters supposed to conceal, according to the narrator? What would one know if one could only read them?
  8. At the end of the story, according to the narrator, is it possible to know objectively one’s inner reality?
  9. In this story Woolf questions whether the inner self of an individual is finally knowable. What do you think is her conclusion? Provide support for your statement.
  10. What do you think is the role of the mirror in the story? How has the mirror been used as a metaphor in literature?
  11. Describe the characteristics of this story that resemble stream-of-consciousness narrative technique.

 

Answers:

  1. The mirror in the first paragraph is set up as a frame for a kind of portrait as it reflects what the narrator can see about Isabella’s life. The mirror is big and luxurious, and in it you could see the reflection of Isabella’s house and garden. This image represents the aspect of Isabella’s outer life; what the narrator uses to inspire her imagination. However, this image hides who Isabella truly is.
  2. The mirror reflects part of Isabella’s house and her garden. This environment is fancy and portrays luxury, which reflects the image the narrator has about Isabella. It seems to belong to a successful, wealthy person.
  3. The contrast between the objects inside the house and outside the house shows the chaos in her mind. Inside the house, there are objects moving all the time portraying turmoil and mess. However, in the outside everything is still and quiet.
  4. The narrator composed the mood inside the house as harmonic, calm and happy. She describes Isabella as a person who is very successful and now lives surrounded by the consequences of her success. She seems happy and looks like she has lived a lot of adventur
  5. In the story, very little is known for a fact about Isabella’s outer self; the description in the story is based purely out of suppositions. The few facts that we know about her outer self are that she is quite wealthy and she lives alone.
  6. The material objects inside and outside the house does the narrator use to imagine Isabella’s life are, to begin with, the letters. The letters portray Isabella as a social, interesting and passionate woman. Moreover, the narrator saw grey-green dresses, shoes and ‘something sparkling at her throat’. This shows an Isabella who is superficial, materialistic and who cares too much about appearances.
  7. Isabella’s letters supposed to conceal, according to the narrator, that Isabella had known many people, that she had many friends and if one would read the letters one would find ‘appointments to meet, of upbridings for not having met, long letters of intimacy and affection, violent letters of jealousy and reproach, terrible final words of parting’. The narrator wanted the readers to understand how passionate and experienced Isabella’s life was.  
  8. It is possible to know objectively one’s inner reality. At the end of the story, Isabella has the possibility to meet her inner self by looking at a mirror. When she encountered her truly self she realized how she had no thoughts, no friends, no letters. How she was ‘old and angular’. She felt alone and miserable.
  9. In this story Woolf provides a contradiction between the inner and the outer self, how different they are and how people may never get to see the inner self of an individual. She reaches the conclusion that the inner self of a person is not knowable to other people, as she expresses with Isabella’s story. The narrator makes up an entire fake image about Isabella, as she sees her as a happy, successful person with a lot of friends and who has lived many adventures. However, in the end of the story, we can see how this outer image of Isabella collapses as the narrator expresses how all the mail she got,which she thought was from friends, lovers and admirers, were actually bills. Isabella’s true self is hidden from the world; nobody truly knows what she has done or if she is happy or not.
  10. The role of the mirror in the story is crucial. The mirror reflects inside herself, the mirror is able to see beyond the superficiality. Throughout the story, the narrator describes a mysterious Isabella, nobody knew anything about her other than the fact that she was a spinster. In the end of the story, the mirror reflects her inner self, it shows how empty she really was. ‘She stood naked in that pitiless light. And there was nothing’.
  11. Stream of consciousness is a narrative method that portrays the thoughts and feelings that pass through the mind. “The Lady in the Looking Glass” resembles this narrative technique as the narrator expresses her thoughts about Isabella all throughout the story. The story itself consists of the narrator’s thoughts and assumptions about Isabella, which she is expressing to the reader

Male reproductive system

Let´s start to study reproduction.

Living organisms reproduce sexualy or asexualy. Therefore, we say that there are two types of reproduction.

  1. Act: Use information from the text book to build a comparison table between sexual and asexual reproduction.

Humans reproduce sexualy.

2.  Watch this video to learn about the MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.

3. Act: Summarize the functions of each of the organs which are part of the male reproductive system. Take a look at THESE SLIDES !

Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The glans, also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. The opening of the urethra is at the tip of the penis. The glans of the penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. The penis delivers semen to the female during intercourse and has the urethra, which is used to transport semen and urine.

Testicles: these are oval organs that lie in the scrotum Men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone and for generating sperm.

Scrotum: This is the sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a climate control system for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature.

Urethra: the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. It has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the man reaches orgasm.

Bulbourethral glands: pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a slippery fluid that serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate gland.

Epididymis: a long tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization.

Seminal vesicles: pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.

Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.

4. State the components and the function of semen.

Semen is a greyish white bodily fluid that is secreted by the gonads of male animals. It carries sperm or the spermatozoa and fructose and other enzymes that help the sperm to survive to facilitate successful fertilization.

The semen has:

  • fructose
  • ascorbic acid
  • zinc
  • cholesterol
  • protein
  • calcium
  • chlorine
  • blood group antigens
  • citric acid
  • DNA
  • Magnesium
  • vitamin B12
  • phosphorus
  • sodium
  • potassium
  • uric acid
  • lactic acid
  • nitrogen
  • other nutrients

Its function is to unite one half of the man’s DNA with one half of the woman’s, creating a complete set of DNA in the fertilized egg, which grows into a human fetus.

5. Make a large labelled drawing of a sperm cell and state how the structure is adapted to its function. (Do not add a picture).

Nervous system: neurones and synapse

All mammals have a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and a PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The CNS is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves and receptors.

The NEURONS are special cells which coordinate the messages travelling through the nervous system.

  1. ANATOMY OF A NEURON: Watch THIS video!

Act: State how the structure of a neuron is related to the function.

  • A neuron has three main functions: receive signals, integrate incoming signals and communicate signals to other neurons or muscles or glands. The  structure of a neuron is related to the functions since the first two neuronal functions generally take place in the dendrites. A single neuron may have a lot of dendrites, so it can communicate with thousands of other cells but only one axon which passes the nerve impulses on to other cells.
  • And a long axon to send nerve impulses accross long distances.

 

  1. TYPES OF NEURONS: Read “overview of neuron structure and function   from HERE
  • Act: Make a labelled drawing of each of the three types of neurons, motor, sensory and relay, and state their functions.

Sensory neurons: get information about what’s going on inside and outside of the body and bring that information into the CNS so it can be processed.  

Motor neurons: get information from other neurons and convey commands to your muscles, organs and glands.

Relay neurons:  carry messages from one part of the CNS to another.

YOU SHOULD MAKE THE DRAWING

 

  1. SYNAPSE:
  • Act: Post a short video explaining synapse.
  • Act: Describe in your own words how nerve impulses are transmitted from neurone to neurone.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iws8w6NpsGg

 

  • The video shows us that most of the communication between the neurons occurs in a structure called Synapse. There is a neuron called “Presynaptic Neuron” (where the signals are initiated) On the other hand,  the other neurone (the one who receives the message) is named “Postsynaptic Neuron”. The video also explains that the two neurons are separated by the synaptic cleft. Chemical signals are present in the Presynaptic Neuron and packed into vesicles. When that neuron receives an electrical signal, it gets excited and leads the vesicles release their contents into the synaptic cleft. One they are  in the synaptic cleft, the receptors interact with the neurotransmitters and is able to catch the information. Because of this the neurotransmitter molecules are cleaned away from the synaptic cleft.

 

  • The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of electrical changes across the membrane of the neuron. The membrane of an unstimulated neuron is polarized.

Virtual period: sex hormones and puberty

Sex hormones are responsible of the most dramatic changes that occur in the body. They control puberty, egg and sperm production, pregnancy, birth and lactation.

  1. Read the information about Puberty HERE.
  2. State the female and male hormones which are responsible for the development of the secondary sexual characteristics
  3. Build a comparison table between the changes that occur in male and female after puberty.
  4. Search in the internet and summarize the site of production and effects of the following sex hormones:

– FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone, oxytocine, Hcg, prolactine and testosterone.

5. The chart shows the ages at which the changes associated with puberty take place in boys and girls. Answer questions a, b, c, d and e.

(a) What is the most common age at which boys undergo the changes of puberty?

(b) If a girl had not started menstruation by the age of 15, would this be cause for concern?

(c) Which two features of puberty show the greatest range in the times at which they  occur.

 

(d) Is it unusual for a girl of 9 years to start her menstrual periods?

(e) On average, is it boys or girls who first show the onset of puberty?

Answers:

2. The female hormones responsible for the development of the secondary sexual characteristics are; oestrogen and progesterone. This hormones make women breast grow, public hair grow and develop wide hips. The male hormone responsible for the development of the secondary sexual characteristics is testosterone. These hormones are stimulated by Luteinising Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) . This hormone makes the men body hair grow, the voice break and the muscles growth increase.

3.

4.

  • FSH: It is produced by the pituitary gland and it:
    • Causes an egg to mature in an ovary.
    • Stimulates the ovaries to release the hormone oestrogen.
  • LH: It causes the mature egg to be released from the ovary.
  • Oestrogen: It is secreted by the ovaries and it:
    • Stops FSH being produced – so that only one egg matures in a cycle.
    • Stimulates the pituitary gland to release the hormone LH.
  • Progesterone: It is secreted by ovaries. It maintains the lining of the uterus during the middle part of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.
  • Oxytocin: It is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the pituitary gland. This important hormone plays a crucial role in the childbirth process and also helps with male reproduction.
  • HCG: It is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy.
  • Prolactin: It is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland, named because of its role in lactation. It also has other wide-ranging functions in the body, from acting on the reproductive system to influencing behaviour and regulating the immune system.
  • Testosterone: It is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.

5.

a. The most common age is when they are 12.

b. No, the avarage age is between 12 and 13 years old. But it is normal.

c. The first menstrual period and the growth on breast and hair.

d. No, it is normal, but not very common.

e. Girls are usually developed first.