The Manchurian Crisis

Today, our history teacher, gave us the assignment of watching a video of the Manchurian Crisis and answer some questions.

Here are the questions:

  1. How does the video open? What might the connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland be?
  2. What problems did Japan face? (Mention ALL of them)
  3. What was the role of the army in Japan?
  4. What did army leaders believe Japan needed?
  5. What was the value of Manchuria?
  6. What happened at Mudken?
  7. What did the League do about it?
  8. What was Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League?

My answers:

  1. The video opens with scenes of a village, houses one boat, while talking about that the League failed on maintaining peace and stability. It clarifies that the 1930 was sure which show their control and it all started with the defense called Manchuria Crisis. The connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland might be that the League assemblies were on Poland, or because Poland was involved in the Manchuria Crisis.
  2. The problems that Japan face were: unemployment, isolated country, need more resources (rocky land), overpopulation, couldn’t trade.
  3. The army in Japan had more power than politicians and they had control over the education. So, their role was to control these. Besides, they administrated martial arts techniques from a very young age.
  4. Army leaders believed Japan needed to gain territories so it could help the empire.
  5. The value of Manchuria was high since it had a lot of natural resorces that Japan needed for their products, so this would help the economy be more stable.
  6. In Mudken, the Japan army exploded a mountain and that led to horrible accident.
  7. The League The League told the Japanesse ambassador to stop invading China.
  8. Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League was null. They didn’t care and kept Manchuria anyway.

The League of Nations in the 1920s essay

How successful was the League of Nations in the 1920s? Discuss.

The League of Nations was an international organization, created after first world war, whose main purpose was to guarantee peace in Europe. In the following essay, I will mention the League’s main achievements and failures in order to establish a profound vision of its role in the 20th century.

The League  succeeded in solving countries disputes over borders. For instance, Aaland Islands which was a dispute between Finland and Sweden over them, and they took it to the League. The League proposed they should belong to Finland due to the measure on the distance between the countries and the islands. Sweden accepted.
Secondly, I will explain Upper Silesia. Poland and Germany wanted Upper Silesia so they took the problem to the League. The League proposed a Plebiscite, a popular vote, between the people in the region. Finally, the territory was divided into a German side and a Polish side.
This was a success since it achieved the aim “encourage countries to cooperate, especially in business and trade” that was arranged by the League.
The last success was in Bulgaria. In October 1925, Greek troops invaded Bulgaria after an incident in the border where some Greeks soldiers were killed. The League demanded both sides stand their forces down and Greek forces withdrew from Bulgaria, and sent observers to assess the situation. She judged in favor of the Bulgarians. So, Greece had to pay $45,000 in compensation and was threatened with sanctions if it did not follow the ruling. Greeks obeyed, but they did complain that there seemed to be one rule for the large states and another for the smaller ones.
The League of Nations had a wider task than simply waiting for disputes and hoping to solve them. It worked out in five different areas: refugees, transport, health, working conditions and social problems.
Regarding refugees, the League of Nations took care of them and made sure that they were back in their homeland with work and chances for a good life. To make this possible, the League introduced the “Nansen Passport”, a document that allowed people who were stateless or were deprived of their national passport, to freely enter another country. However, the Refugee Committee was constantly short of funds and the Nansen Passport was raising donations during that time.
In second place, I will talk about League of Nations role in transport. The organization recommended  to mark shipping lanes and to produce an international Highway Code, in order to organize road users and make the transport system simpler. Furthermore, this code helped to keep a better control of who was passing by.
Considering its intervention in health, the League of Nations achieved its most important tasks since it created three institutes: In Singapore, London and  Denmark that helped to develop vaccines and fight dreaded diseases like leprosy or malaria, quite common in those times. In addition, a global campaign was made to exterminate mosquitoes and and yellow fever.
Taking into consideration its role in working conditions, her main achievements were banning poisonous white lead from paint, limiting working hours for children and adults and exposing  abuses. Nevertheless, not all members adopted the changes, because they thought it would increase their industrial costs. Changes were not even adopted by the League, because even if she wanted to, it didn’t have enough funds.
Finally, the League of nations got involved in social problems, such as drug trafficking, prostitution and slavery. The League blacklisted 4 large companies involved in illegal drug trade. Regarding slavery, the League of nations freed 200.000 slaves in British-owned Sierra Leone. She also helped the workers,  lowering the rate of death workers from 50% to 4%. These workers were forced to build a railway in Africa. They were mistreated and forced to do this harsh work. Moreover, she organized raids against slaves owners and traders in Burma. However, in some places the League wasn’t able to remove injustice, in those cases they left records providing information on the problems unsolved.
Consequently, they succeeded in their aim “improve the living and working conditions of people in all parts of the world” that the countries proposed to achieve when the League was created.

In my last paragraph, I am going to develop the failures of the League.
Firstly, I am going to explain Corfu.
An Italian general, Tellini, had to supervise the sorting out the borders between Greece and Albania. Tellini was killed. For that reason, the Italian leader Mussolini blamed the Greek government for the assassination and bombed Corfu. Because of this, Greece they asked the League for help. In the end, Greece had to apologise and pay compensation directly to Italy and Mussolini withdrew from Corfu. Murderers were never found, but they suppose that the Greeks killed him because of favoring the Albanian side. The League was criticised after this incident and they made all this mess, and they did not even complete their objective, sorting out the borders. Moreover, one of the most important countries of the League saw invading as a way of gaining money and power, when one of their aims was to remain peace. And, worst of all, the League was not in conditions to stand over her.  
Secondly, I will explain Vilna, the capital of Lithuania. Poland invaded it, as Polish people were living there. Lithuania took the problem to the League. They gave moral condemnation to Poland, but Poland didn’t obey. Because of this, the League should have stop trading with it, but she didn’t, because she was afraid that Poland would join with Germany and, again, the League was not in conditions to fight with this powerful country.

The Geneva Protocol created by Britain and France in 1924 did not succeed either. Geneva was located in Switzerland, it was a financial center global-city. This protocol, claimed that if 2 members of the League had a dispute they would have to allow the her to solve the problem and accept its decisions. Before the plan was applied, there was an election in Britain. But the new conservative government refused to sign the protocol, because they were concerned that Britain may have been forced to agree with something that wasn’t one of her concerns. So, if one of the most important countries of the League  refused to sign it, no one would. France and Britain hoped this protocol would strengthen the League, but instead, it weakened it since it made her more explicit.
But its main failure was in bringing about disarmament. One of their aims was “to encourage nations to disarm”. The League tried and failed in this. This affected Germany because she had been forced to disarm and the other countries were not prepared to do it, since they didn’t want to be the first to disarm, because it would make them vulnerable. Therefore, they did not achieve this aim. On the other hand, this failure was not so serious because they made international agreements, created in Europe with the influence of the United States of America.

In conclusion, the League of Nations, was successful, in three of the aims: discourage aggression, encourage countries to cooperate, and improving the ways of living and working. Like I developed in her achievements and successes. On the other hand, it had failures: the only country disarmed was Germany, took bad decisions, like the one in Corfu and by 1937 it became irrelevant and ignored even by its main members.

League of Nations in the 1920s

With our history teacher, Lenny Ambrossini, we had to do presentations about the League of Nations in the 1920s. There were different groups that had to develop, the succeses of the League (Aaland Islands, Upper Silesia and Bulgaria) the failures of the League, (Vilna, The Geneva Protocol and Corfu), disarmament of the countries, the achievements of the League, (refugges, transport, health, working conditions and social problems), her aims and memberships, and finally, her structure.

The structure of the League was made by  Benjamin Mayol, Gonzalo Criniti, Vignesh Manwani and Santiago Blasco. This presentation talks about the structure of the League, how it worked and the main aims of each part.

League’s achievements was made by Juana Perez Muniz, Jeronimo LeguizamonFederica Marty and Maria Roggero. This presentation includes five achievements the League could obtain.

Corfu and Bulgaria was made by me, Margarita Muller, Milagros Montanelli,  and Rosario Vago.This presentation explains one failure, Corfu, and one success, Bulgaria.

Aaland Islands and Upper Silesia was made by Martin Anania, Francisco Lusso and Ignacio Maestro Malek. This presentation develops two successes of the League.

Vilna and the Geneva Protocol was made by Lucas Campion, Silvestre Braun Urien and Lola Villegas Argento. This presentation has two failures, which were, Vilna and the Geneva Protocol.

Disarmament was made by  Sybilla Correa Perkins, Rosario Segura and Milagros Mendez Peralta Ramos. This presentation talks about disarmament and some treaties to achieve peace.

Aims and Membership: was made by Ines Galmarini, Flor Claps and Martina Ibarbia. This presentation  explains the main aims of the League and the central members of it.



The Paris Peace Conference

Today in our  history class we watched a video and answer these questions. I did it with Martina Villafañe Ibarbia

1) War guilt.Explain the arguments FOR and AGAINST this term.

2) Which term followed War Guilt? How much would it be today? What consequences/impact did it have on Germany?

3) Why were the victors planning to prevent a future war with Germany in the Treaty?

4) What territorial losses did Germany have to face? What happened to the German colonies? What did Wilson dislike about this?

5) Which new nations were created after WW1?


1) FOR: Germany cause everything, thats why, the war started because of her.  AGAINST: There were many other causes that led to War, like the murder in Sarajevo.

2) The term that followed War Guilt were the reparations that Germany, had to pay as she “is the cause of the War”. It would have been $600 billion in modern terms. The impact that had on Germany was an economic consequence, because she have to paid to the countries the resources used in war, so she end up without money. She had money, but not a lot. Also, Germany was humiliated because she had to pay everything, even 10 years later when the people had nothing to do

3) The treaty was signed because they want to prevent War with Germany, because they knew she will grow again and take revenge.

4) Germany, because of The Treaty of Versailles, lost Poland and Alsace-Lorraine. But also German colonies, in Africa, the Pacific and China, were given to the allies. Wilson wasn’t happy with the territorial distribution, that it was just giving it from one Empire to another as opposed to having self-determination.

5) The new nation created after WW1 were: Poland, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Croatia, Bosnia and Slovenia.

Extension work

Here is a PDF with the dialogues that me and my group, Milargos Mendez and Fefi Marty, did: TheParisPeaceConference.LANDOLFOMARTYMENDEZP

We record it on a voicethread.

My personal comment about the assignment to learn on the Big Three and their aims and objectives:

1) Did you feel you learnt more than if you had studied this from the book?
I think that, as I wrote it on a paper and then said it out loud, I memorize it faster than reading it from the book.
2) What did you personally enjoy about the project?
In my opinion, it was very funny because we starting imitating the Big Three and imaging us being them and speaking like them.
3) What would you change from this project if the class from Senior 1 next year were going to do it again?
I would change the app voicethread because I think that is a little bit difficult to use it.

History essay Writing, the causes that led to WW1

Did the assassination of Franz Ferdinand make the war inevitable?

The murder in Sarajevo was a very important short term cause, since it was the last one. However, I would like to call it the spark that lit the bonfire. Because between 1900 and 1914 various incidents took place before, which gradually raised the temperature in Europe and made the tension grow. There were long and short term causes that led to World War 1.

One of the long term causes were the alliances.  There were different alliances between the Empires. To begin with I´m going to talk about The Dual Alliance Treaty that was made in 1871 to protect Germany and Austria-Hungary Empire, from a possible Russian´s attack,. Another alliance was the Franco-Russian military convention made in 1892, to give military assistance to each other in case of war. By 1914 the six most powerful countries in Europe were divided into two opposing alliances, they were Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the Triple Alliance and Britain, France and Russia which formed the Triple Entente. But in the middle of the war, Italy changed sides.             Another long term cause were the main concerns, the plans and the ambitions of each country and their leaders. This was a significant cause because it created rivalries among countries in Europe. For instance, The Balkans, a very unstable area and two great powers Russia and Austria’Hungary wanted to control the area because it gave them access to the Mediterranean. So, Russia wanted to make the Slavs form Austria-Hungary independent, and that would make Austria-Hungary very angry because she wanted to keep the fragmental Empire together. Another example was Germany challenging Britain by building a powerful navy. This made Britain angry because the country had always ruled the seas without a challenge, and, since she had a very powerful fleet and was smaller than the other countries, her advantage was to go overseas to conquer.      Another cause was the loss of Alsace-Lorraine. Alsace-Lorraine was an industrial and valuable area of France that Germany had taken in 1870. This was important because we can understand why Germany and France were rivals.

Now I´m going to talk about the short term causes. The first short term cause that I will explain is the first Moroccan crisis which started in 1905 when France wanted to conquer Morocco.  Germany defended her independence, to have an opportunity to get it. Great Britain helped France because she wanted to stay as the dominating power of Africa, and didn’t want Germany´s growth. To solve this, the countries involved, attended a conference in Algeciras in 1906, made by Theodore Roosevelt. This was a cause that led to World War 1 because the countries involved made allies and enemies, for example, Britain sided with France so tension grew with Germany.                                                 The second Moroccan crisis was in 1911. The countries involved were the same as in the  first crisis. France sent troops to control Morocco, so the sultan got angry and violated the terms of the Algeciras conference. When this happened, Germany moved the Panther, which arrived in the port of Agadir on May 21. Finally, France kept Morocco. It was an  important cause that lead to World War 1 because it shows the betrayal of France by putting troops in Morocco and the Alliance between France and Britain in action.       The Naval Race between Germany and Great Britain was also an important short term cause of the First World War. This race was to see who had the largest amount of ships. Britain won with 38 dreadnought’s. Both countries spent millions with the purpose of, having more power and to frighten the looser. Also to be superior, to show to the other countries that they have to be afraid of you, that they have to fear you                           Also there was an Arm´s Race. The Arm´s Race was a competition between Germany, France, Russia and Great Britain to see whose army was the best . These causes were  important because they created huge friction among the most powerful Empires.     Another cause was the Balkans crisis. Balkans is a peninsula in southeast Europe composed by different countries. At that time it was a very unstable area because different nationalities were mixed together. It started in 1908 when Serbia opposed the fact that Austria took over the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia sided with Serbia and Germany with Austria-Hungary. Serbia was getting the most powerful country in the Balkans so in 1914 Austria-Hungary was looking for a good excuse to crush Serbia. With the Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which I describe below, Austria found an excuse to blame the Serbian government. In July 1914 they presented an ultimatum  demanding Serbia to become part of the Austrio-Hungarian Empire.                            Serbia didn’t accept it,  Austria-Hungary did not give Serbia time to answer really, so, as an anticipation of the war, she mobilized her troops. On July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and all the countries joined their alliances. It was important because this murder provided Austria-Hungary an excuse to attack Serbia.                                          So, the last cause that lead to World War 1 was the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. It was the excuse found when war was inevitable. In 1914 in Sarajevo, the Archduke, nephew of the Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was murdered with his wife by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist. Ferdinand was there, in Sarajevo, to inspect the imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These provinces were annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908 to the indignation of Serbians nationalists who believed that they should become part of the Serbian nation. This murder was important because it brought about many events. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and peace in Europe´s greatest powers collapsed. Russia, Belguim, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the World War 1 began, in 1914. People thought that it would be until Christmas of that year, 1914, but it ended about the end of the year, 1918.                  These are all the causes that helped the development of World War 1. All the causes were important, some more extreme and immediate than others. But the war started with the murder of Sarajevo, because of the other previous causes mentioned above that helped to create hate, rivalry and tension. Moreover, as this was the last one, it was used the excuse to start the war.                                                                                                     On the other hand, maybe all these causes were only excuses and the real aim of the countries was to control the growth of the others Empires, to flex their military muscle and have more countries and war was the way to achieve their aim.

In conclusion, the murder of Sarajevo was an important cause, since it was the last straw that broke the camel´s back, but not a crucial one, because it wasn´t the only cause that led to world war 1.
Victoria Landolfo