The Manchurian Crisis

Today, our history teacher, gave us the assignment of watching a video of the Manchurian Crisis and answer some questions.

Here are the questions:

  1. How does the video open? What might the connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland be?
  2. What problems did Japan face? (Mention ALL of them)
  3. What was the role of the army in Japan?
  4. What did army leaders believe Japan needed?
  5. What was the value of Manchuria?
  6. What happened at Mudken?
  7. What did the League do about it?
  8. What was Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League?

My answers:

  1. The video opens with scenes of a village, houses one boat, while talking about that the League failed on maintaining peace and stability. It clarifies that the 1930 was sure which show their control and it all started with the defense called Manchuria Crisis. The connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland might be that the League assemblies were on Poland, or because Poland was involved in the Manchuria Crisis.
  2. The problems that Japan face were: unemployment, isolated country, need more resources (rocky land), overpopulation, couldn’t trade.
  3. The army in Japan had more power than politicians and they had control over the education. So, their role was to control these. Besides, they administrated martial arts techniques from a very young age.
  4. Army leaders believed Japan needed to gain territories so it could help the empire.
  5. The value of Manchuria was high since it had a lot of natural resorces that Japan needed for their products, so this would help the economy be more stable.
  6. In Mudken, the Japan army exploded a mountain and that led to horrible accident.
  7. The League The League told the Japanesse ambassador to stop invading China.
  8. Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League was null. They didn’t care and kept Manchuria anyway.

An Inspector Calls by J.B Priestley

In our literature class, with Pato Chujman, we started reading An Inspector Calls, by J.B Priestley.

Edwardian era:

  • Class division
  • Social injustice
  • Change in the economic system
  • Women social & política Union was created
  • Number of servants decreased

Victorian Era:

  • Class división
  • Only men could vote
  • Division of classes
  • Scientific, medical, technological advances
  • Industrial revolution
  • Kids were ill-treated in factores and mines
  • Unemployment/ poor working conditions
  • Population grew

The characters:

  • Gerald Croft–> Shelia’s Birling fiancée. He is a liar, since he told Sheila that he was very busy at work but he wasn’t. He is part of the upper class, so that’s the reason why Arthur wants him to marry her daughter, it meant more money.
  • Arthur Birling that was the father. He believed businessman know better, that wars will end because nobody wants wars, that the world was progressing really fast and that WW1 wouldn’t even start
  • Eric Birling –> son. Loves drinking. The black ship of the family.
  • Shelia Birling –> daughter
  • Sybill Birling–> mother
  • Edna –> maid
  • Inspector Goole 

The background of the story:

It was written in 1945, but the story takes place in 1912. Priestly was against Capitalism and in the story Arthur Birling is shown as a capitalist man. The story is set in the Edwardian Era, were there was prosperity for the middle class and industrialist. But also, the working class was discontent which led to strikes.

Act 1

Gerald and Mr Birling are alone

Read their conversation ( p. 8-9-10-11 upto Edna speaking)

-What are they talking about?

-They are talking about mr birling trying to enter to the honours list as a Knighthood. Mr Birling says that he had some hints that he will be chosen and Gerald congratulates him.

-Whats Mr Birling hoping to get?

-A Knighthood in the next Honours list

-Mr birling vs Geralds mother                              ~what is reveald in this conversation?     ~How does A. Birling feel as regards the crofts?

Its reveald that the Birlings have a secret that the knighthood honors list cant find out.  He feels that he can trust them because he told Sherald.

-According to Mr Birling, whats a mans responsability? ( quote from the play)

Acording to Mr Birling “a man has to make his own way – has to look after himself – and his family too, of course, when he has one- and so long as he does that he winr come to much harm. Bur the way some of these cranks talk and write now, you’d think everybody has to look up after everybody else, as iF we were all mixed up together like bees in a hive – community and all that nonsense

-They mention ” a scandal” , secrets that may affect characters in the future (literary device?)

Forshadowing

8/4

Today, with Pato Chujman, our literarure teacher, we did some questions about the first act of An Inspector Calls. I did my 5 questions with Ines Galmarini and Lola Villegas.

Questions 9-14:

A New Design

Questions 19 to 23:

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Questions 12 to 17:

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Questions 1 to 5:

Captura de pantalla 2016-04-11 20.07.00

Questions 24 to 27:

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Questions 6-10:

An Inspector Calls

Questions 15 to 20:

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Questions 3 to 7:

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Act 2:

Then we finished reading act 2.

First we did a mind map showing the relation Eva Smith had with each character.

 

Second we answer some questions from the book.

1) What is the mood at the dining room at the start of act 2?

The mood in the dining room at the start of the act two is tense because the first act finished with a lot of tension since Gerald had told Sheila that he cheated on her.

2)Why do Gerald and Sheila react “bitterly” to each other?

They react bitterly to each other because Sheila found out that Gerald was having an affair with Daisy Renton that was Eva Smith.

6)How does Mrs Birling re-enter the dinning-room? Why does Sheila warn her?

Mrs birling entered as she didn’t have nothing to do with Eva Smith and Sheila warned her that  she didn’t have to separate herself from her because the inspector always found a connection.

7)What is Mrs Birling’s attitude to Eva Smith?

The attitude that Mrs. Birling had with Eva Smith was mean and selfish, because when Eva smith told Mrs Birling that she was expecting a baby she said that she had to go ask the father for help not them. She also isn’t understanding the situation because she is from a higher social status, she has never been that desperate.

19)How does the Inspector’s attitude start to change?

The inspector starts acting suspicious and threatening.

20)What makes Sheila suddenly aware of Eric’s involvement?

Sheila realises because she is the only one that can read the inspector and the inspector was being very obvious and dropping a lot of hints.

21)Why does Mrs Birling react in a “frightened” way?

Mrs Birling had just told the inspector that the man who had given her stolen money, Eric, had to suffer serious consequences and that he was entirely responsible for her death, and in that scene she just realised that the man was Eric.

22)What is the mood at the dining-room as Eric re-enters?

There is a lot of tension and everyone is scared of what is going to happen next.

Futhermore, we analyse each character. I did ir with Lola Villegas

Shelia Birling
– She is described as a “pretty girl in her early twenties, very pleased with life and rather excited”
– Shelia is the only character who understands the inspector’s game. “he is giving us the rope- so that we’ll hang ourselves” She warns the others.
– She is very suspicious and perceptive, she is the first to consider whether the inspector may not be real. Furthermore, she is curious yet very mature, because she was not angry at Gerald when he told the story about how he cheated on her.
– She is compassionate, she shows compassion when she hears of her fathers treatment to Eva Smith “But these girls aren’t cheap labour, they’re people”
– Shelia feels full of guilt for getting Eva fired, she blames herself completely as “really responsible” This is why, she couldn’t understand how her parents cannot have learnt from the evening in the same way that she has, they were still refusing the blame. She was angry at them. “Pretend that nothing happened”
– During the play, she gets much wiser. Her social conscience awakes and she gets aware of her responsibilities.

Mrs Sybil Birling
– She is described as “about fifty, a rater cold woman and her husband’s social superior”
– She is a snob, very aware of different social classes, dismissing Eva saying “Girl of that class”.
– She has the least respect of the inspector trying, unsuccessfully, to intimidate him and force him to leave by lying.
– She sees Shelia and Eric as “children”.
– Sybil tries to deny things she does not want to believe, like Eric’s drinking and the fact that a working class woman would refuse money by saying “She was giving herself ridiculous airs”
– She could not accept the blame. She thinks it was her “duty” to refuse to help her. She claims, that the father of the child should be the one who takes care of her. Obviously, she didn’t know that the father was Eric.
– At the end of the play, she accepts that Eric drinks and got pregnant helping a poor woman stealing money to his father. Moreover, she accepts that Shelia is not going to marry Gerald. But anyway, she does not accept the blame for Eva’s suicide.

Eric Birling
– He is described as “in his early twenties, not quite at ease, half shy half assertive”
– He seems embarrassed and awkward “Eric suddenly guffaws”
– He has a tension relationship with his father
– He is a hardener drinker “I have attired that he does drink pretty hard”
-Eric support workers and not his father. He states “why wouldn’t they try for higher wages?
-He feels, like Shelia, guilt and frustration”Oh-my God! – how stupid it all is!”
-He has a sense of responsibility since he steals money to give it to Shelia.
– He cant believe that his parents could not accept the blame. “I’m ashamed of you” Eric stood up to his father
-At the end, like Shelia, he is fully aware of social responsibility.

Arthur Birling

“heavy-looking, rather portentousman in his middle fifties but rather provincial in his speech.”Worked his way up in the world and is proud about it. He tries (and fails) to impress the Inspector about his local standing and his influential friends. “I was an Alderman for years – and Lord Mayor two years ago – and I’m still on the Bench – so I know the Brumley police officers very well (…)”He is proud that he is likely to be knighted, as that would move him even higher in social circles. “there’s a fair chance that I might find my way into the next Honours list. Just a knighthood, of course.”He is happy about the celebration not because of Sheila’s happiness but because merger with Crofts Limited would be good for his business. “Your father and I have been friendly rivals in business (…) and now you’ve brought us toghether”.Optimistic for the future and believes that there won’t be a war. “you’ll hear some people say that war is inevitable (…) nobody wants war.”Extremely selfishBelieves that socialist ideas that stress the importance of the community are “nonsense” and that “a man needs to make his own way.”He wants to protect Birling & Co and can’t see he was wrong when he fired Eva because he was just looking after his business.Wants to protect his reputation. He’s worried about what the press would think and he wants to hide the fact that Eric stole money. “I’ve got to cover this up as soon as I can.”At the end of the play, he knows that he has lost his opportunity fo the knighthood, his reputation in Brumley and the change of Birling & Co merging with the rivals. However, he refuses to accept his part in Eva’s death and doesn’t learn the lesson.
Gerald Croft

“an attractive chap about thirty, rather too manly to be a dandy but very much the easy well-bred man-about-town.”An aristocrat, his parents are not overly impressed by his marriage because they didn’t show up to the celebration. “It’s a pity that Sir George and – er – Lady Croft can’t be with us”.Not as willing as Sheila to admit his involment in Eva’s death.He did have genuine feelings for Daisy Renton. “She was young and pretty and warm-hearted – and intensely grateful.”In act 3 he tries to gather evidence that the Inspector is fake. He tries to protect himself rather than change himself.At the end of the play, he hasn’t changed; he hasn’t gained a.new sense of social responsibility.

Eva Smith
-She is described as “very pretty-sift brown hair and big dark eyes”
-Her parents were dead
-She came from outside Bromley “country bred”
-Working class
-She had a diary

Inspector goole
-“A man in his fifties (…) he speaks carefully, weightily, and has a disconcerning habit of looking hard at the person he adresses before actually speaking.”
-Works very sistematically. His method is to confront the suspect with a piece of information and then make them talk. “he’s giving us the rope – so that we’ll hang ourselves.”
-Figure of authority, deals with each member of the family very firmly.
-Seems to know and understand an extraordinary amount.
-Knows the story of Eva Smith and the Birling’s involvement in it.
-He knows things are going to happen.
-He loses his patience towards the end of the play and is in a great hurry.
-He leaves the family with the message ‘We are responsible for each other’ and warns them of the ‘fire and blood and anguish’ that will result if they don’t learn the lesson.
– The end suggests that the Inspector isn’t a real person – God? A ghost? The voice of their conciences

Last but not least, we analyse the theams which are: using power firnthe worng, social responsibility, guilt and consiencie, acceptance, an inequality society and relationships

 

The League of Nations in the 1920s essay

How successful was the League of Nations in the 1920s? Discuss.

The League of Nations was an international organization, created after first world war, whose main purpose was to guarantee peace in Europe. In the following essay, I will mention the League’s main achievements and failures in order to establish a profound vision of its role in the 20th century.

The League  succeeded in solving countries disputes over borders. For instance, Aaland Islands which was a dispute between Finland and Sweden over them, and they took it to the League. The League proposed they should belong to Finland due to the measure on the distance between the countries and the islands. Sweden accepted.
Secondly, I will explain Upper Silesia. Poland and Germany wanted Upper Silesia so they took the problem to the League. The League proposed a Plebiscite, a popular vote, between the people in the region. Finally, the territory was divided into a German side and a Polish side.
This was a success since it achieved the aim “encourage countries to cooperate, especially in business and trade” that was arranged by the League.
The last success was in Bulgaria. In October 1925, Greek troops invaded Bulgaria after an incident in the border where some Greeks soldiers were killed. The League demanded both sides stand their forces down and Greek forces withdrew from Bulgaria, and sent observers to assess the situation. She judged in favor of the Bulgarians. So, Greece had to pay $45,000 in compensation and was threatened with sanctions if it did not follow the ruling. Greeks obeyed, but they did complain that there seemed to be one rule for the large states and another for the smaller ones.
 
The League of Nations had a wider task than simply waiting for disputes and hoping to solve them. It worked out in five different areas: refugees, transport, health, working conditions and social problems.
Regarding refugees, the League of Nations took care of them and made sure that they were back in their homeland with work and chances for a good life. To make this possible, the League introduced the “Nansen Passport”, a document that allowed people who were stateless or were deprived of their national passport, to freely enter another country. However, the Refugee Committee was constantly short of funds and the Nansen Passport was raising donations during that time.
In second place, I will talk about League of Nations role in transport. The organization recommended  to mark shipping lanes and to produce an international Highway Code, in order to organize road users and make the transport system simpler. Furthermore, this code helped to keep a better control of who was passing by.
Considering its intervention in health, the League of Nations achieved its most important tasks since it created three institutes: In Singapore, London and  Denmark that helped to develop vaccines and fight dreaded diseases like leprosy or malaria, quite common in those times. In addition, a global campaign was made to exterminate mosquitoes and and yellow fever.
Taking into consideration its role in working conditions, her main achievements were banning poisonous white lead from paint, limiting working hours for children and adults and exposing  abuses. Nevertheless, not all members adopted the changes, because they thought it would increase their industrial costs. Changes were not even adopted by the League, because even if she wanted to, it didn’t have enough funds.
Finally, the League of nations got involved in social problems, such as drug trafficking, prostitution and slavery. The League blacklisted 4 large companies involved in illegal drug trade. Regarding slavery, the League of nations freed 200.000 slaves in British-owned Sierra Leone. She also helped the workers,  lowering the rate of death workers from 50% to 4%. These workers were forced to build a railway in Africa. They were mistreated and forced to do this harsh work. Moreover, she organized raids against slaves owners and traders in Burma. However, in some places the League wasn’t able to remove injustice, in those cases they left records providing information on the problems unsolved.
Consequently, they succeeded in their aim “improve the living and working conditions of people in all parts of the world” that the countries proposed to achieve when the League was created.

In my last paragraph, I am going to develop the failures of the League.
Firstly, I am going to explain Corfu.
An Italian general, Tellini, had to supervise the sorting out the borders between Greece and Albania. Tellini was killed. For that reason, the Italian leader Mussolini blamed the Greek government for the assassination and bombed Corfu. Because of this, Greece they asked the League for help. In the end, Greece had to apologise and pay compensation directly to Italy and Mussolini withdrew from Corfu. Murderers were never found, but they suppose that the Greeks killed him because of favoring the Albanian side. The League was criticised after this incident and they made all this mess, and they did not even complete their objective, sorting out the borders. Moreover, one of the most important countries of the League saw invading as a way of gaining money and power, when one of their aims was to remain peace. And, worst of all, the League was not in conditions to stand over her.  
Secondly, I will explain Vilna, the capital of Lithuania. Poland invaded it, as Polish people were living there. Lithuania took the problem to the League. They gave moral condemnation to Poland, but Poland didn’t obey. Because of this, the League should have stop trading with it, but she didn’t, because she was afraid that Poland would join with Germany and, again, the League was not in conditions to fight with this powerful country.

The Geneva Protocol created by Britain and France in 1924 did not succeed either. Geneva was located in Switzerland, it was a financial center global-city. This protocol, claimed that if 2 members of the League had a dispute they would have to allow the her to solve the problem and accept its decisions. Before the plan was applied, there was an election in Britain. But the new conservative government refused to sign the protocol, because they were concerned that Britain may have been forced to agree with something that wasn’t one of her concerns. So, if one of the most important countries of the League  refused to sign it, no one would. France and Britain hoped this protocol would strengthen the League, but instead, it weakened it since it made her more explicit.
But its main failure was in bringing about disarmament. One of their aims was “to encourage nations to disarm”. The League tried and failed in this. This affected Germany because she had been forced to disarm and the other countries were not prepared to do it, since they didn’t want to be the first to disarm, because it would make them vulnerable. Therefore, they did not achieve this aim. On the other hand, this failure was not so serious because they made international agreements, created in Europe with the influence of the United States of America.

In conclusion, the League of Nations, was successful, in three of the aims: discourage aggression, encourage countries to cooperate, and improving the ways of living and working. Like I developed in her achievements and successes. On the other hand, it had failures: the only country disarmed was Germany, took bad decisions, like the one in Corfu and by 1937 it became irrelevant and ignored even by its main members.

Comparison of Romantic poems: The Clod and the Pebble, Passion and She was a Phantom of Delight

Today our literature teacher, Pato Chujman, gave us the assignment of looking up the romantic elements in the poems: The Clod and the Pebble, Passion and She was a Phantom of Delight. I did it with Milagros Montanelli and Martina ibarbia.

ComparisonofRomanticpoems

She Was a Phantom of Delight by William Wordsworth

Today, with our literature teacher, Pato, we started reading the story “She was a Phantom of Delight” but first he searched about the author.

Birth: 7th of April 1770

Death: 23th of April 1850

Influence on the writer: living on the Lake District.

Who is the poem for: his wife, Mary

Read the poem and check the meaning of new words. Sigue leyendo

My essay of the Literature Term Test

Here is the essay that I did on the second Term Test.

Explore how the writer of Passion treats with love and nature.

Kathleen Raine tackles love and nature in her poem Passion. In the following essay, this idea will be explained.

First, I am going to talk about how Kathleen Raine handles love. In the first three stanzas, there is a voice desperate for being loved back by her beloved. “Possessing what my soul lacked, tranquility´´ with this quote, we understand how nervous she was because of unrequited love, she was getting crazy. “With the well-known and mortal death, heartbreak“ meaning that she was broken in pieces for not being love back. In the third stanza, we read that, she couldn’t even talk or write. We realize how horrible loneliness is.

Secondly, I’m going to talk about how the writer handles nature. When the main voice is already devastated, the sky spoke to her, being a personification of nature. The sky told her that nature is so much important than being in love with some human beings. ´´Lift your heart again with no fear´´ meaning that she didn’t have to be afraid for being devastated again because now she had nature, and nature will never leave her side. By saying this, the main voice started seeing the word in a different way, in a good way. Seeing that the real passion is in nature.

In conclusion, Kathleen Raine deals with love and nature in her poem Passion.

Of White Hairs and Cricket by Rohinton Mistry

Before reading the story, we search about the author and some of his genres. We had to search:  Post-colonial Literature, The origin of Parsi and the concept Diaspora.

Rohinton Mistry:

Rohinton Mistry, was born in 1952, India. He is an indian-born Canadian.
He is a novelist and his genre are Historical Fiction, Postcolonial Literature, Realism, Parsi Literature Minor Literature.
His books portray diverse facets of Indian socioeconomic life; as well as Parsi Zoroastrian life, customs, and religion. Many of his writings are markedly “Indo-nostalgic”.

He emigrated to Canada following with his wife to be Freny Elavia in 1975 and they married there shortly after his arrival. In 1975, settling in Toronto where he studied at the University of Toronto and received a BA in English and Philosophy. He worked in a bank for a while, before returning to studies, leading up to a degree in English and philosophy.

He won a lot of awards such as:
1983 Hart House Literary Contest, “One Sunday”
1984 Hart House Literary Contest, “Auspicious Occasion”
1985 Annual Contributors’ Prize, Canadian Fiction Magazine
1991 Man Booker Prize, shortlist, Such a Long Journey
1991 Governor General’s Award, Such a Long Journey
1991 Commonwealth Writers Prize, Such a Long Journey
1991 W.H. Smith/Books in Canada First Novel Award, Such a Long Journey
1991 Trillium Award, Such a Long Journey
1995 Giller Prize, A Fine Balance
1995 Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Fiction, A Fine Balance
2002 Man Booker Prize, shortlist, Family Matters
2002 James Tait Black Memorial Prize, shortlist Family Matters
2004 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award, shortlist, Family Matters
2012 Neustadt International Prize for Literature[8][9]
Mistry, wrote 3 novels and 3 short stories.

His brother is the playwright and author Cyrus Mistry. He earned a BA in Mathematics and Economics from St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai.

Parsi religion
•Parsis follow the religion of Zoroaster, a prophet of the seventh century B . C .
•From the region between the Hindu Kush and Seistan.
•A small religious community
•Which exists mostly in Mumbai, is Zoroastrianism.
•The follower is called Parsi because the religion arrived in India from Persia.
•This religion was established by Zarathustra in 6th or 7th century BC.
•The followers of this religion exiled from Iran in the 7th century AD. because of religious persecutions by the Muslims. They arrived in Gujarat region of India.

Meaning of Diaspora: the dispersion or spread of any people from their original homeland.
Examples: Jews living outside Israel.

Post-Colonial Literature:

Post-colonial literature is the literature people started writing when:

  • they were colonized
  •  after they freed themselfs of their colonizers

And most of them were from Europe. This kind of literature expressed the problems and consequences people had after not being colonized anymore This included:

  • Many economic and social issues like poverty and lack of education
  • The consequences and misfortunes of colonialism.

Colonialism left people thinking that:

  • They were savages
  • That they were less important  than others
  • That they didnt have much identity.

And what Authors wanted to do was bring their identity back and reconect the population with the land.

 

Parsi Origin:

Freddy Mercury was a Parsi.

The Parsis are an immigrant community, possibly coming from Fars, Persia, and now located in Bombay, western India. They are distinguished by their adherence to the Zoroastrian faith.

Zoroastrianism, their religion, had been in existence in Persia for well over a thousand years, usually as a state cult. The Parsis traditionally worked as entrepreneurs (ranging from the ownership of liquor shops to steel mills), in trade (especially with China), in finance (as bankers), or in government service.

Kin Groups and Descent. Most people today prefer to live in nuclear families. There are no larger kin-based groups such as lineages or clans. Descent is patrilineal. (Kinship Terminology. Kin terms follow the pattern found among other Gujarati speakers in the region.)

Religious Beliefs. Parsis follow the religion of Zoroaster, a prophet of the seventh century b.c. from the region between the Hindu Kush and Seistan. Their belief system includes ideas about a creator god, good and evil forces, individual choice, Heaven and Hell, the Last Judgment, and eternal life.

While reading the story, we did a SlideShare

Finally, we answers some questions and did a SlideShare with the answers.